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The key influences of historical events in Russia on the themes of stage dance genre

Автор: dieseo от 21-07-2017, 12:06
The key influences of historical events in Russia on the themes of stage dance genre
In the thirties stage dance continued to develop in two directions. First included the stage dancers. Second direction was represented by dancers and balettmeisters who liked to experiment. They started to work on theme programs and establish new artistic objectives. At the same time, they continued the process of enrichment of the academic choreography with the discoveries resulting from the dance stage. At the beginning of 1937 existence of music halls with the best samples of soviet stage ceased. However, interesting experimental productions sometimes were displayed at a regular dance stage. This is how at the Leningrad stage emerged “Progulshiki” of VasiliyVayonena, and at a Moscow stage – “Podhalim” VictoraTsaplina. Tsaplin put on a stage number with the music of Yumoresky of P. Tchaikovsky. He dressed his action figure into somewhat predictable costume- a short business jacket without a styleand bright plat pants, the audience still recognized in him familiar features – festinating pace, nervous rubbing of the hands, bowed back and the flattering look which was looking from below up, at the high management… Due to actual theme from real life and the successful realization of idea on the stage, the number of Tsaplin for many years was one of the most popular. In the 50s, L. Yakobson put together a updated number with the same title. Also, much favorited became the number “The Football player” by A. Messerer which appropriately teased not very talented but eager player who is fighting with the non-existing opponent.
Bravely combining classical dance with the sport moves,Messerer created a realistic and plausible character of a football loving young man. The same gift of capturing typical characteristics were possessed by Emil IsaacovichMey. Since the twenties he nursed an idea of a stage dance theater. In fact, all of his numbers were dance monologues. In his first one- “The Dry Goods”- he created Natalie Glan, it covered realization of philistine nature of a character.
Per N. Sats who had been observing Mey at different stages of his professional development, his plastics always very illustrative. It was built according to the laws of logical narrative. This particular feature of Mey explains his gradual progression from performing and balletmeister works to directing synthetic performances. His plan of creating his own large dance program became unrealized.
Similar experience was realized by LudmilaSpokoyskoy in the 30s, talented dancer who persisted to create her theatrical image of a single actor.
The dancer always was attracted to the possibility of creating in a choreographic miniature of acute psychological characteristics. Already during the first years of working at the stage she participated in the pantomime “Life of Woman” directed by N. Petrov in Petrograd’s Free comedy. She picked out for herself the episode of winter because she was interested in the process of going through manifestation as a woman growing old.
At the stage of Svobodnogo theater she danced tango with Monomahov where Spokoyskaya played a female vampire. Tango was interpreted by the performers absolutely seriously and made huge impression on the public of the 20s early 30s.
Despite the huge success of performances together with Monomahov in the numbers of salon genre and typical dance numbers (Kachuche, Madyarskom), Spokoyskayafelt less and less interested to perform the usual repertoire. Parting with Monomahov, she started working alone, creating numbers of her own in the genre of a dance a propaganda genre.
Her artistic methods were very similar to the methods of drama actors. Just like them she created biographies of her characters including all of the details of their life.
Rhythmic pantomime- it is perhaps the most exact definition of genre created by Spokoyskaya. Its distinguished features are not measured by any dance scale. But its topicality, ability to represent political themes with propaganda attributes- characteristics which developed traditions of dance numbers by Blue Blues, theater of political satire of the 20s.
Work of Spokoyska was also close to the work by representatives German contemporary dance, ideally close to expressionism.
In the beginning of the 30s in the CCCP toured one of the most notable representatives of German contemporary dance- Valeska Gert- already not a young woman, bad figure and weakly trained dance legs. Gert knowingly highlighted antiesthetic of her plastics making it her principle.
Gert performed genre dance scenes with singing. Knowing how to recreate her most typical feature of her characters Gert discovered something in common- its weakness before the evil world. Recreating vices the dancer painted it full of mystical powers.
A lot was borrowed from Gert a distinguished stage dancers of those years- Vera Drutskaya. Before transitioning to the creation of thematic dance concerts she studied in many experimental studios, was in cinema, worked with balettmeisters of the older generation, had close relationships with arts youth which grouped around KamerniyTheater. Throughout her practice she became familiar all directions of stage dance of her time but lasted for the genre direction.
Every number of Drutskoy was pierced by an idea, at was noted by Erwin Piskator and foretold that with time she will surpass the western Europe dancers such as Gert, Vigman and Palukka. From Drutskoy as a performer and balletmeister was expected a lot but the dancer suddenly stopped in her artistic growth. Dances of Drutskoy, highly appraised by the Moscow critics were not well received by the wide audiences when she toured CCCP in 1935. While building her numbers on complicated associations and psych nuances of her images, Drutskaya ignored the necessaryrequirements of the stage art- ease of comprehensions of representational means, particular showiness forms which resulted in her concerts being popular only with a limited circle of audience.
Misfortunes of personal and professional nature badly influenced the fate of Vera Drutskoy and she passed away early.
At the same period GalinaLerhe started her own independent thematic concerts. But unlike Spokoyskaya and Drutskoy, she was not interested in the quest for social characteristic of her dance images but was into their psychological development.
Lerhe’s special gift was meant for the stage. She got to work in ballet theaters of Kharkov, Kiev and Moscow. Significant influence on her was done by N. Forreger who decided todeny academic ballet by the beginning of the thirties, however, continued to look for ways of updating it by adding the laments of stage and circus art. In his performances in Kharkov Lerke was the lead. In 1934,Lerkhe started to prepare her own evening of art. She been long engaged with a thought that while performing at the concert stage the dancers need to give up from the specific theater costumes and make up. She did not look real in them without the appropriate decorationbackground and lighting. Limiting her costume by a uniform, Lerkhe placed before herself a very complicated objective- to achieve showmanship of a dance by the means of movements and emotional richness.
The concert program consisted of two parts. The first included the suite of Spanish dancers. Lerhe designed an opened black dress with a wide skirt which allowed movements more freely. Put together with light material which tightly hugged the figure. Throughout the performance the accessories were added.
In the second part of the concert depicted a dancer in humorous miniatures represented the state of a contemporary girl, impressionable and simple, who finds herself in various situations of life.
At the end of the 30s it smelled more and more of an upcoming storm. In Soviet art the war theme began taking a significant place reflecting the events at the far East and Spain. Civil war was commemorated by a dance scene “Rasstovanie,” it was shown at the scene of Moscow Theater of Miniatures in 1939. This synthetic stage number with singing and harmonica performed by talented A. Sedlyarov and A Smolko. Idea of the number under the influence of a cinema picture N. Pogodina and S. Utkevich “A Man with a Gun” which debuted in 1938. The dance was called Utkevich and P. Kretov.
A the same 1939 at the stage emerged “Granometchiki.” Created for the students of Moscow choreographic teaching facility, the number was performed for a long time on stage including by his author Vladimir Buymeister. The number depicted two fighters of the Republican army shooting at the enemy. One is wounded. He other one placed the comrade on his shoulders and retreated, throwing grenades.
At the time when dance art became more and more dependent on the laws of drama world, the emergence of Granatometchiki had a principle and uplifting meaning. From that point on the tradition can be traced to the 50s when the new stage of development of the Soviet choreography started- the dance once again became hegemon in the ballet spectacle.
Majority of dancers of ballet theaters also performed on the stage. Unlike in 1920s the artists of the academic ballet went on the stage not to experiment in the well-polished principles of the realistic theater but to satisfy their need in a dance.
Even O. Lepeshenskaya, who was one of the few ballerinas toured nationally, had a repertoire which used to be called very “official” at the time. With A. Ermolaev she danced adagio from “TshetnoyPredostorojnosti” and the Bravado pa de de from the Don Kihoti. With V. Smoltsov- lyrical SeventhWaltz of Shopen.
To be continued...
Author: Olga Grigorieva

The key influences of historical events in Russia on the themes of stage dance genre

Автор: dieseo от 10-07-2017, 13:19
The key influences of historical events in Russia on the themes of stage dance genre
Soviet stage dance inherited the pre-revolution’s genres and many artists’ forces. The dancers continued to perform long after the revolution in theater miniatures as well as chanson cafes. It determined the themes and styles of their art. Those were divided into three categories.
First one included folk dances, primarily Russian and Ukrainian.
From the performers of salon dances grace was a requirement. At first, the genre included foreign artists who introduced to the Russian public to fashionable dances of the beginning of the century (Mitchishem and Kak Walk and Tango most popular).
Artists who performed these genres were distinguished by high professionalism.
Third category was composed dancers of plastics, representatives of freelance dance who, as a rule, did not study anywhere but were attractive women. They tried to dance represting the music meaning, tried to represent the emotions contained using natural poses and movements.
Such dancers did not possess the virtues of isidre Duncan., the creator of the genre, who was striving for high moral standards. Therefore, it was hard for stage dancers to find themselves again on the conditions of life after the revolution. Some emigrated. Those remaining home tried to adjust to the demands which were required for the soviet art.
Folk dancers were able to relate to the new revolutionary audience much quicker than the rest.
Perhaps, the most famous was Grigori Phillipovich Egorov (Orlik), he was the patriarch of the Moscow family of dancers and one of the first stage dancers who received the title of a distinguished artist of the republic.
In the twenties, he performed in Ukraine as a member of the trio Orbelbal. In 1925 city of Orlin organized an ensemble of a Ukrainian Dance Kuren. Ensemble performed only one dance or, to be exact, one dance number which was arranged the way it was done in pre-revolutionary chorus.
The dance was initiated by three couples which continued as a lyrics solo of the girls. Afterwards the guys in the temp of adagio followed the composition with big extended jumps (Golubtsov, Pa-de-Baskov).
Through the Orlic’s Kuren the pre-revolutionary traditions of ensemble numbers reached the Soviet stage.
Kuren from 1927 till 1930 performed abroad with much success. After the death of Gregory Orlik, in 1932, his son George Orlik organized similar in style ensemble Vihr which lasted for 4 years.
Famous Ryazan dance was closely associated with the renditions of the Russian dance folklore, it was performed by the stage dancers of the Mariynsky theater such as Evegenia Lopuhova and Aleksander Orlov in the duration of 30 years, staring in 1912 and ending in 1941.
Olrov was highly engaged with the idea to create a number on based on authentic folk material. He suggested to introduce the element of competition between the village beauty and city cavalier, bearing the schematics of “Lapot” duet and image of manufacturing dude.
Ryazan dance was highly popular in any audience. After the revolution Lopuhova and Orlov covered almost the whole country with the number. Staring with the Ryazan dance the tradition was born of a comedy number based on the material of dance folklore which can be traced in stage art till present day.
Another distinguished dancer of the twenties, Nikolai Aleksandrov, went through the school of the pre-revolutionary dance troupe of Borrya. In consisted of 4 dancers- Piruetistov which performed in Kosak costumes and spikes.
The creation of Aleksandrova one can trace an interesting tendency- a blending of Russian folk dance with a black tap dance which brought into Russia before the revolution.
Eventually, Russian stage emerged with a hybrid genre of tap dancers. Most organically it blended with salon dances. Basically, that’s how tap dancing appeared in Russia performed by the first American artists. Sometimes, that’s how the dance was called- American.
Famous quartet Folly which also included A. Arnold L. Armantova, N. Vinchenko, A. Trilling. Arnold came up with the idea to cover the stage with bits of roofing which added a rustling sound. Later the quartet fell apart. Arnold got involved in the circus directing. Vinnchenko and Trilling for some time with much success performed paired tap dance number (Black and White) and then continued to work as musicians in jazz of Utesova. During that time stage showed salon dances.
As usual the Tango of death remained a hit, it appeared after the world war one. Best performers of salon dance were Komnev and Iving. These tango dancers, as they were advertised as the followers of rules, the performance was reviewed emotional.
Also, Willi Foska, Miss Guet and Maksly were popular. Their names, in foreign style, characterized the mood of performance.
With that tradition were tied the most famous and popular dancers of new economic politics stage – Lidia Iver, Arkadiy Nelson. The duet of Iver and Nelson were interesting due to outward contrast of a little woman and a big man- always successful from the audience point of view. Iver was able to play female weakness and little distance from reality.
An inheritance from the past times the Soviet stage received a genre of plastic dances. First performance of Duncan in Moscow occurred at the stage of Bloshoi theater in the days of the fourth celebration of anniversary of October. She was honored to receive an ability to dance at the event dedicated to October. Success of Duncan in Moscow in 1921 highly raised the authority of a dance in general and retrospectively touched all plastic dance studios.
Especially distinguished was Kasyan Goleyzevskiy. His work usually occurred on the stage despite finishing St. Petersburg theater institute and was allowed on the stage of Bolshoi as a solo.
Terribly gifted by nature and passionately loving life Gozelevskyi was greedy for art work. Even before the revolution he happily responded to the offer N. Baliev to be a co-director and composer of dance numbers in the cabaret “Bat”. His first significant work occurred in 1918 with the music of A. Skryabin. He dressed his performers into long white almost monastic tunics, he created a number close to the theme of drama by Materlika Sisters Beatrice. At the same time he borrowed from the directing tools of Meyerhold which he directed for 1907 stage production in Kommissarjevskiy Theater.
Undoubtful in the first years of his work Gleyzevskiy was under the influence of impressionists and developed characteristic for them themes. When he became the head of studio in 1918 of the studio dedicated to the talent search in ballet art, the print published a notice that a close work relations will be initiated by Andrei Beliy, one of the theorists of the Russian impressionists.
Engaged with the works of Skryabin, sharply feeling expressionism of his music Gozelevskiy with pleasure and unending fantasy gives life to his works in wonderful dance compositions, using naked bodies of the dancers as sculpture material.
In polemic wave, he even insisted on full nakedness of figures defending it that beautiful forms can not cause a disgust, on the contrary, the image should increase the morale of the current masses.
In Strauss’s Salome Zenaida Tarahovskaya who possessed the most beautiful figure was presented naked to the waist line before the audience during the of the seven veils. The early period of Gozelevsky was highly intensive and eclectic. If one follows his classification of the stage dance it is possible to state that he worked in his light intermittent and highest style.
Next to his name is usually the one of Leo Lukin. Talented, knowing music very well, he just like Gozilevskiy interpreted mainly Skryabin and more than Gloeyzevsky used eroticism in his work. Thus, the atmosphere of scandal always surrounded Lukin. Yet still his best work examples emotional state of an individual was represented by him in new plastic forms which were quite eccentric.
In 1921 a young theater artist Vladimir Dmitriev and the graduate of the Petrograd school George Balanchivadze organized art cooperation- young ballet which united the youth bloom of the ballet from St. Petersburg. It included Lidia Ivanova, Olga Mungalova, F. Lopuhova and her partner Peter Gusev as well as future balletmeister Vasiliy Vaynonen and Leonid Lavrovskiy and etc.
The work of the Young ballet had an unconditional influence on the formation of new concert and stage repertoire. The search for the new style of a classical dance and its advancement to contemporary times manifested in introduction of masculine and energetic intonations. Especially notable with bright colors in duets of Mangulova and Guseva which upset all cannons of a classical duet.
In those years at the Petrograd stage another pair gained popularity. They were from an older generation from the Maryinsky Theater- Elena Lukom and Boris Shavrov. Renewing the language of a classical dance they made it simpler in form, made it more easy to comprehend, more enriched in contents.
In the compositions produced by the Young ballet of Vaynonena immediately appeared the longing to grotesque ideas and valuable ability to put together numbers on the go.
Gifted with a rare ability of choreographic thinking, Vaynonen composed a lot of lightweight and in various genres, always finding the plastic seed in dance. Earlier works of Vaynonen predisposed to merge of academic choreography with contemporary speeding the emergence in the Leningrad ballet performances with Soviet theme.
In 1924 at the scene of the Petrograd theater “Krivoe Zerkalo” emerged new dance genre. Its creators Marie Ponne and Alexander Kaverzine can described in the words Sergei Obraztsov: stage is an art where the talent of performer is crystallized and his name becomes the name of unique genre. In this case- plastic-acrobatic duet.
Majority of strong masters of stage dance worked in satiric vein. Unique artistic work of Ponne and Kaverzina was said to fit perfectly the esthetic ideal of the time.
It is not coincidental that their work is associate with the sculpture. , their numbers represent the chain of completed harmonically and highly complicated acrobatic poses. Yet still they were very much a dance number. Compositions of Kaverzina were distinguished with the unique inner rhythm, melodic and soft bridges from one movement to the other. In agreement with the musical contents of the piece.
First significant work of Ponne and Kaverzina- suite of dances to the music Skryabina. Artists turned to the composer’s productions which were full of heroic themes and was associated with the revolutionary histrionics.
In comparison with general tendencies of development of soviet art as realistic art of Kaverzin it becomes clearer the necessity of search of new plot base for the future dance numbers. Just the other choreographers he turned to the images of classic literature.
In the search of new Ponne and Kaverzin had to give up their main advantage- virtuous possession of a body. Actors mastery as it had become one of the main points in choreographic art of the subsequent times they possessed in much lesser degree.
All subsequent works of Ponne and Kaverzin developed in the vein of plot miniatures and had taken a leading place amongst stage dance genres and advanced many bright talents.
As the result of the experiments by K. Goleyzovskogo, L. Lukina and G. Balanchivadze the lexicon of the classical dance increased. Practice of N. Forgtera, N. Glan, V. Vaynonena gave birth to contemporary characters in their art works. The art of M. Pnna and A. Kaverzina had taken the acrobatic dance into the line of poetic metaphors.
Dance stage of the 20s varied a lot. It shined with bright talents, original numbers, outdated and newly appearing genres.
To be continued...
Author: Olga Grigorieva