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The key influences of historical events in Russia on the themes of stage dance genre

21-07-2017, 12:06, опубликовал: dieseo в раздел Новости

The key influences of historical events in Russia on the themes of stage dance genre
In the thirties stage dance continued to develop in two directions. First included the stage dancers. Second direction was represented by dancers and balettmeisters who liked to experiment. They started to work on theme programs and establish new artistic objectives. At the same time, they continued the process of enrichment of the academic choreography with the discoveries resulting from the dance stage. At the beginning of 1937 existence of music halls with the best samples of soviet stage ceased. However, interesting experimental productions sometimes were displayed at a regular dance stage. This is how at the Leningrad stage emerged “Progulshiki” of VasiliyVayonena, and at a Moscow stage – “Podhalim” VictoraTsaplina. Tsaplin put on a stage number with the music of Yumoresky of P. Tchaikovsky. He dressed his action figure into somewhat predictable costume- a short business jacket without a styleand bright plat pants, the audience still recognized in him familiar features – festinating pace, nervous rubbing of the hands, bowed back and the flattering look which was looking from below up, at the high management… Due to actual theme from real life and the successful realization of idea on the stage, the number of Tsaplin for many years was one of the most popular. In the 50s, L. Yakobson put together a updated number with the same title. Also, much favorited became the number “The Football player” by A. Messerer which appropriately teased not very talented but eager player who is fighting with the non-existing opponent.
Bravely combining classical dance with the sport moves,Messerer created a realistic and plausible character of a football loving young man. The same gift of capturing typical characteristics were possessed by Emil IsaacovichMey. Since the twenties he nursed an idea of a stage dance theater. In fact, all of his numbers were dance monologues. In his first one- “The Dry Goods”- he created Natalie Glan, it covered realization of philistine nature of a character.
Per N. Sats who had been observing Mey at different stages of his professional development, his plastics always very illustrative. It was built according to the laws of logical narrative. This particular feature of Mey explains his gradual progression from performing and balletmeister works to directing synthetic performances. His plan of creating his own large dance program became unrealized.
Similar experience was realized by LudmilaSpokoyskoy in the 30s, talented dancer who persisted to create her theatrical image of a single actor.
The dancer always was attracted to the possibility of creating in a choreographic miniature of acute psychological characteristics. Already during the first years of working at the stage she participated in the pantomime “Life of Woman” directed by N. Petrov in Petrograd’s Free comedy. She picked out for herself the episode of winter because she was interested in the process of going through manifestation as a woman growing old.
At the stage of Svobodnogo theater she danced tango with Monomahov where Spokoyskaya played a female vampire. Tango was interpreted by the performers absolutely seriously and made huge impression on the public of the 20s early 30s.
Despite the huge success of performances together with Monomahov in the numbers of salon genre and typical dance numbers (Kachuche, Madyarskom), Spokoyskayafelt less and less interested to perform the usual repertoire. Parting with Monomahov, she started working alone, creating numbers of her own in the genre of a dance a propaganda genre.
Her artistic methods were very similar to the methods of drama actors. Just like them she created biographies of her characters including all of the details of their life.
Rhythmic pantomime- it is perhaps the most exact definition of genre created by Spokoyskaya. Its distinguished features are not measured by any dance scale. But its topicality, ability to represent political themes with propaganda attributes- characteristics which developed traditions of dance numbers by Blue Blues, theater of political satire of the 20s.
Work of Spokoyska was also close to the work by representatives German contemporary dance, ideally close to expressionism.
In the beginning of the 30s in the CCCP toured one of the most notable representatives of German contemporary dance- Valeska Gert- already not a young woman, bad figure and weakly trained dance legs. Gert knowingly highlighted antiesthetic of her plastics making it her principle.
Gert performed genre dance scenes with singing. Knowing how to recreate her most typical feature of her characters Gert discovered something in common- its weakness before the evil world. Recreating vices the dancer painted it full of mystical powers.
A lot was borrowed from Gert a distinguished stage dancers of those years- Vera Drutskaya. Before transitioning to the creation of thematic dance concerts she studied in many experimental studios, was in cinema, worked with balettmeisters of the older generation, had close relationships with arts youth which grouped around KamerniyTheater. Throughout her practice she became familiar all directions of stage dance of her time but lasted for the genre direction.
Every number of Drutskoy was pierced by an idea, at was noted by Erwin Piskator and foretold that with time she will surpass the western Europe dancers such as Gert, Vigman and Palukka. From Drutskoy as a performer and balletmeister was expected a lot but the dancer suddenly stopped in her artistic growth. Dances of Drutskoy, highly appraised by the Moscow critics were not well received by the wide audiences when she toured CCCP in 1935. While building her numbers on complicated associations and psych nuances of her images, Drutskaya ignored the necessaryrequirements of the stage art- ease of comprehensions of representational means, particular showiness forms which resulted in her concerts being popular only with a limited circle of audience.
Misfortunes of personal and professional nature badly influenced the fate of Vera Drutskoy and she passed away early.
At the same period GalinaLerhe started her own independent thematic concerts. But unlike Spokoyskaya and Drutskoy, she was not interested in the quest for social characteristic of her dance images but was into their psychological development.
Lerhe’s special gift was meant for the stage. She got to work in ballet theaters of Kharkov, Kiev and Moscow. Significant influence on her was done by N. Forreger who decided todeny academic ballet by the beginning of the thirties, however, continued to look for ways of updating it by adding the laments of stage and circus art. In his performances in Kharkov Lerke was the lead. In 1934,Lerkhe started to prepare her own evening of art. She been long engaged with a thought that while performing at the concert stage the dancers need to give up from the specific theater costumes and make up. She did not look real in them without the appropriate decorationbackground and lighting. Limiting her costume by a uniform, Lerkhe placed before herself a very complicated objective- to achieve showmanship of a dance by the means of movements and emotional richness.
The concert program consisted of two parts. The first included the suite of Spanish dancers. Lerhe designed an opened black dress with a wide skirt which allowed movements more freely. Put together with light material which tightly hugged the figure. Throughout the performance the accessories were added.
In the second part of the concert depicted a dancer in humorous miniatures represented the state of a contemporary girl, impressionable and simple, who finds herself in various situations of life.
At the end of the 30s it smelled more and more of an upcoming storm. In Soviet art the war theme began taking a significant place reflecting the events at the far East and Spain. Civil war was commemorated by a dance scene “Rasstovanie,” it was shown at the scene of Moscow Theater of Miniatures in 1939. This synthetic stage number with singing and harmonica performed by talented A. Sedlyarov and A Smolko. Idea of the number under the influence of a cinema picture N. Pogodina and S. Utkevich “A Man with a Gun” which debuted in 1938. The dance was called Utkevich and P. Kretov.
A the same 1939 at the stage emerged “Granometchiki.” Created for the students of Moscow choreographic teaching facility, the number was performed for a long time on stage including by his author Vladimir Buymeister. The number depicted two fighters of the Republican army shooting at the enemy. One is wounded. He other one placed the comrade on his shoulders and retreated, throwing grenades.
At the time when dance art became more and more dependent on the laws of drama world, the emergence of Granatometchiki had a principle and uplifting meaning. From that point on the tradition can be traced to the 50s when the new stage of development of the Soviet choreography started- the dance once again became hegemon in the ballet spectacle.
Majority of dancers of ballet theaters also performed on the stage. Unlike in 1920s the artists of the academic ballet went on the stage not to experiment in the well-polished principles of the realistic theater but to satisfy their need in a dance.
Even O. Lepeshenskaya, who was one of the few ballerinas toured nationally, had a repertoire which used to be called very “official” at the time. With A. Ermolaev she danced adagio from “TshetnoyPredostorojnosti” and the Bravado pa de de from the Don Kihoti. With V. Smoltsov- lyrical SeventhWaltz of Shopen.
To be continued...
Author: Olga Grigorieva
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